Aw man, that did sound like a really bad day! :( I hope things get better for you. Math is my worst subject, so I really feel for you. But hang in there, at least your teacher is giving you another chance!
I wouldn't beat yourself up too much if I were you over the rest. I know I don't know you, but that just seemed a bit harsh of your mom to storm out on you like that. Stress can really do a number on someone. There are days when the smallest thing makes me cry, and I'll only realize things later down the line when I have more perspective. But that doesn't make you crazy. :(